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412.3 Classification et classement - Mondothèque

412.3 Classification et classement

From Mondothèque

(...) 412.31 Notion de la classification

On entend par classement bibliographique, l’art de disposer les ouvrages d’après leur matière (sujet ou contenu) et par classification, le tableau ou les tables qui disposent les connaissances dans l’ordre où doivent l’être les ouvrages eux-mêmes.
La classification bibliographique est un ordre de suite. Elle se développe en une série linéaire unique dont tous les termes occupent, les uns par rapport aux autres, une place ou rang désigné par un signe (mots, nombres ou symboles quelconques ordonnés en système).
La classification est l’armature de l’organisme intellectuel qu’est la bibliothèque ou une collection de documents. Elle a de multiples utilités : 1° elle sert au choix des ouvrages, car elle constitue un véritable plan d’acquisition ; 2° elle est utile à la lecture car elle présente le plan d’un cycle de lectures fondamentales (autodidaxie) ; elle sert aussi pour l’étude de la terminologie, pour l’ordonnancement des matières de l’encyclopédie ; 3° le catalogue méthodique de la bibliothèque et des collections est fondé sur elle ; 4° le placement des ouvrages sur les rayons et des documents dans les classeurs est opéré dans son ordre ; 5° elle constitue un classement des connaissances dans l’esprit.

1. — Division de l’étude.

Une étude complète de la classification embrasserait les questions suivantes :

A. — La classification en général. — Taxonomie.

1. Préliminaires. Définition. Importance. Rapports et corrélations avec la Science en général, la Logique, le Langage, l’Écriture et la Notation, la Documentation, les objets et les arts. 2. Notions fondamentales. Réalité et conception, l’individu et la classe, les catégories. Les ordres taxonomiques fondamentaux. 3. Degrés dans la classification : Classification d’une chose, d’une science, de l’ensemble des sciences. 4. Espèces de classification : naturelle et conventionnelle. 5. Notation, expression de la classification : mots-matières, symboles. 6. Formes de la classification : alphabétique (analytique), méthodique (synthétique).

B. — La classification décimale universelle (C. D. U.).

1. Notions, Historique et Développement. 2. Caractéristiques et Plan de la classification. 3. Notation. 4. Rubriques et nombres simples ou composés. 5. Les Tables systématiques, alphabétiques, synthétiques. Concordance avec les principales classifications. 6. Emploi. Applications et indexations diverses : Publications (titres, tables et index), Catalogue (bibliographie), Collections (bibliothèques) ; musées : répertoires, archives et dossiers divers, brevets, législation, statistique, comptabilité 7. Éditions diverses de la C. D. 8. Examen critique de la Classification : réformes proposées. 9. Organisation de la coopération pour le développement de la C. D.

2 — Classification théorique.

Classer est la plus haute opération de l’esprit, celle qui implique toutes les autres. L’esprit s’élève à mesure qu’il est susceptible d’abstraction, de systématisation et de synthèse. Classer donne lieu à quatre opérations distinctes, quatre démarches successives de l’intelligence.

a) De la multiplicité des choses (être, objets, phénomènes, événements) dégager par comparaison les classes ou types les plus généraux et établir ensuite les rapports entre eux selon les lignes d’une architecture intellectuelle d’ensemble (systématique, construction de la science).

b) Désigner chacune des divisions ou rubriques du Tableau de la Classification ainsi obtenu par une notation adéquate, cotes ou indices (Langage).

c) Ensuite, pour chaque objet qu’il y a lieu de classer (note, livre, fiche, document quelconque), reconnaître sa place dans la classification comme contenu par rapport au contenant ; fixer cette place en inscrivant sur l’objet la notation correspondante (indexation).

d) Enfin, former la collection ou l’ensemble des objets à classer (livres, documente, etc.) de telle sorte que son ordonnancement reproduise l’ordre même de la classification (classement).

3. — Difficulté de la classification.

Cependant, dans l’état actuel d’avancement des connaissances :

a) La Science dans sa plus grande partie n’est pas encore construite et les desiderata d’une structure logique (induction et déduction) ne sont pas satisfaits.

b) Le langage usuel n’est pas adéquat pour dénommer les concepts scientifiques car : a) ce langage est aussi multiple et varié qu’il est de nations, alors que la science elle, est universelle ; b) ce langage consiste en un système de vocables reposant sur de superficielles et lointaines analogies remontant aux âges d’ignorance de l’Humanité. (Ex. : le nom Soleil dérivé d’une racine sanscrite qui signifie brillant sert à désigner un corps bien déterminé du système solaire) ; c) les vocables rangée selon l’arbitraire de l’ordre alphabétique des lettres qui les transcrivent ne révèle rien de l’ordre systématique des choses que révèle ou formule la science.

412.32 Types de classification bibliographique

Il existe d’innombrables systèmes de classement. Tous cependant peuvent se ramener aux types du tableau suivant :

Classification systématique.
Classification alphabétique,
Sans notation.
Avec notation,
Notation par chiffres.
Notation par lettres.
Notation par autres symboles.
Notation par combinaison de chiffres, lettres ou symboles.
Traité de documentation

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