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251.322 Les notes - Mondothèque

251.322 Les notes

From Mondothèque

a) L’élément matériel premier de tout travail intellectuel est la note. Les savants en dépouillant un ouvrage prennent parfois autant de notes que de pages.

Les notes sont de diverses sortes.

1. Notices bibliographiques, livres jugés utiles à connaître, à lire, à relire, ou livres déjà lus ; passages, parties d’ouvrages, formant source. — 2. Citations, extraits, copie de quelques phrases intéressantes avec indication de source exacte. — 3. Critique des ouvrages, analyse d’un paragraphe ou d’une page. — 4. Idées originales, esquisses d’hypothèses scientifiques, canevas d’articles ou de chapitres ; place ou division du sujet, phrases heureuses, titres à ne pas oublier, simples pensées, idées déjà rédigées, idées résumées ou en tableaux, phrases de transition.

b) Observer le principe monographique. Un élément, une fiche ; une fiche, un élément. On peut employer plusieurs fiches si la place manque sur une seule. Il est préférable de n’écrire que sur un côté de la fiche, en vue du découpage et du collage ultérieur. Mais des exceptions sont possibles.

Les notes étendues et le manuscrit préparé pour l'impression seront établis sur feuilles planes ou pliées en deux. Il est préférable de n’avoir que deux formats : feuilles et fiches. Avoir soin de donner son titre, sa rubrique à chaque fiche et de lui assigner le numéro de classification de la table des matières de l’ouvrage.

c) Dans l’élaboration de la pensée et de l’écrit, les notes sont à la fois des jalons et des représentants de réalités existantes. Impossible de les négliger : elles s’affirment être et force est bien d’en tenir compte. Aussi le répertoire est comparable à une « machine à penser ».

d) Il faut se hâter de noter les idées qui semblent pouvoir être fécondées. Elles sont souvent très fugitives et c’est parfois quand on les recherche plus tard, dans la collection des notes, qu’on est en mesure d’en tirer tout le parti qu’elles comportent.

e) La confrontation des notes les unes avec les autres fait jaillir d’autres idées, même tardivement.

f) Au moment d’écrire, les notes sont ou bien utilisées telles quelles (on les colle à leur place sur des feuilles de manuscrit) ; ou bien on les refond dans une nouvelle rédaction enrichie alors de contributions provenant de diverses sources, soi-même dans des réflexions ou observations antérieures, autrui dans les rappels de documents.

Une méthode consiste à donner simplement aux fiches du manuscrit un numéro courant dont il est fait référence alors aux divisions correspondantes du plan. C’est plus rapide à établir, mais moins efficient, car on ne peut lire, relire, remanier, compléter les fiches en s’y prenant en plusieurs fois. Ceci est possible avec l’autre méthode quand les fiches sont elles-mêmes disposées dans l’ordre du manuscrit et que les modifications apportées au plan en cours de travail se répercutent immédiatement sur l’ordre même des fiches.

Se servir des notes réunies, mais ne pas vouloir à tout prix les utiliser. La composition de l’ouvrage demeure indépendante des notes, et l’on recourt à celles-ci comme à un auxiliaire. Toutefois les notes étant représentatives de faits ou de réflexions constructives ou critiques, on ne peut les négliger sans faillir aux préceptes de la science qui veut un exposé vrai et complet.

g) Cependant, ne pas abuser. Il faut limiter les notes afin d’éviter deux grands inconvénients. D’abord l’encombrement : une multitude de notes obligent à une multitude de relectures au moment de l’utilisation et à la difficulté de leur trouver place dans l’ensemble. Ensuite les notes rendent paresseuse la mémoire et écartent son opération qui s’accompagne ordinairement d’une opération de jugement, de synthèse et de mise au point actuel. Mais ces deux inconvénients n’enlèvent rien à la haute utilité ou plus exactement à l’indispensable nécessité des notes.

h) L’ouvrage tiré des notes présente bien des imperfections. Il y a redites sur les points qui se trouvent avoir été traités à diverses reprises et des lacunes sur ceux qui, pour quelque raison exceptionnelle, se trouvent n’avoir point été touchés. La pensée évolue et les points de vue changent. Même si la direction générale reste bien identique, les expressions d’hier peuvent ne plus satisfaite pleinement aujourd’hui et tel détail d’ici ne plus s’accommoder avec tel détail de là. En bien des cas les indications à reprendre sont tantôt trop fragmentées et tantôt trop complexes, parfois de développement à proportion trop inégal et parfois surtout trop liées à l’objet qui en était l’occasion pour pouvoir toujours être utilement détachées, retenues pour elles-mêmes et réunies en un tout intelligible à lui seul et vraiment présentable. (Fr. Simiand. La méthode positive en science économique, p. 4.) [1]


Traité de documentation
  1. Voir aussi n° 233 Place des notes dans les ouvrages et n° 237 Lecture des notes. 412.6 Système des fiches et feuilles, ou système de livres, cahiers et registres.

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